Saturday, February 8, 2020

Analysis governments involved in events and festival Essay - 1

Analysis governments involved in events and festival - Essay Example A few responsibilities however are common among all these levels of the government with the exception of others which are concerned with only a particular level of government. The basic function of every government is to provide protection and safety to the people. It is also the duty of the government to maintain order and peace in the country (Raj & Morpeth, 2007). It comes under the utmost responsibility of the government to make sure that no such events are taking place in the country that can result in disruption of the smooth running of the government and thereby affect stability of the country. It is also the responsibility of the concerned authorities to keep the economic conditions of the country up to a certain necessary mark and strive to make the country progress and increase economic stability. Providing the people and the citizens of the country with the basic necessities and provisions of life in order to help the people to live a satisfied and contended life is the ob ligation of the administration. Also governments have the primary responsibility to provide leisure activities for the people of their country so that they remain healthy and fit (Hall & Sharples, 2008). It is basically the duty of the local government to provide these leisure and entertainment facilities to the people. Entertainment facilities that government usually focus on include amusement parks, parks, walking tracks, gardens, theater, sports grounds, malls, museums, art galleries, exhibitions and different sites for tourist attractions. In order to make these entertainment facilities easily accessible it is necessary that the transport facilities like train, buses, etc. are easily available and these facilities are available at an affordable price so that they can be accessed by all the citizens of the country. Besides that roads and

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

People Who Change the World Essay Example for Free

People Who Change the World Essay Nelson Mandela was born on July 18, 1918, in Transkei, South Africa and became actively involved in the anti-apartheid movement in his 20s, Mandela joined the African National Congress in 1942. For 20 years, he directed a campaign of peaceful, non-violent defiance against the South African government and its racist policies. In 1939, Mandela enrolled at the University College of Fort Hare, the only residential center of higher learning for blacks in South Africa at the time. Fort Hare was considered Africas equivalent of Oxford or Harvard, drawing scholars from all parts of sub-Sahara Africa. In his first year at the university, Mandela took the required courses, but focused on Roman Dutch law to prepare for a career in civil service as an interpreter or clerk—regarded as the best profession a black man could obtain at the time. In his second year at Fort Hare, Mandela was elected to the Student Representative Council. For some time, students had been dissatisfied with the food and lack of power held by the SRC. During this election, a majority of students voted to boycott unless their demands were met. Joining with the majority of students , Mandela resigned from his position. Seeing this as an act of insubordination, the universitys Dr. Kerr expelled Mandela for the rest of the year, but gave him an ultimatum: He could return if he agreed to serve on the SRC. When Mandela returned home, the regent was furious, telling Mandela unequivocally that he would have to recant his decision and go back to school in the fall. A few weeks after Nelson Mandelas return home, Regent Jongintaba announced that he had arranged a marriage for his adopted son. The regent wanted to make sure that Mandelas life was properly planned, and the arrangement was within his right, as tribal custom dictated. Shocked by the news andf feeling trapped and believing he had no other option, Mandela ran away from home. He settled in Johannesburg, where he worked a different of jobs, including as a guard and a clerk, while completing his bachelors degree via correspondence courses. He then enrolled at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg to study law. Mandela soon became actively involved in the anti-apartheid movement, joining the African National Congress in 1942. Within the ANC, a small group of young Africans banded together, calling themselves the African National Congress Youth League. Their goal was to transform the ANC into a mass grassroots movement, deriving strength from millions of rural poor and working people who had no voice under the current regime. Specifically, the group believed that the ANCs old tactics of polite petitioning were ineffective. In 1949, the ANC officially adopted the Youth Leagues methods of boycott, strike, civil disobedience and non-cooperation, with policy goals of full citizenship, redistribution of land, trade union rights, and free and compulsory (Required by law or a rule; obligatory.) education for all children. For 20 years, Mandela directed peaceful, nonviolent acts of defiance against the South African government and its racist policies, including the 1952 Defiance Campaign and the 1955 Congress of the People. He founded the law firm Mandela and Tambo, partnering with Oliver Tambo, a brilliant student hed met while attending Fort Hare. The law firm provided free and low-cost legal counsel to unrepresented blacks. In 1956, Mandela and 150 others were arrested and charged with treason for their political advocacy (they were eventually acquitted). Meanwhile, the ANC was being challenged by Africanists, a new breed of black activists who believed that the pacifist method of the ANC was ineffective. Africanists soon broke away to form the Pan-Africanist Congress, which negatively affected the ANC; by 1959, the movement had lost much of its militant support. Nelson mandela fought for what he believeed in and changed the lives of many south african people at the cost of his life (reffering to the many years in jail.) Mandela change things that probaly still been in affect on if he hadnt.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Papaya :: Health, Food Safety

Our results of PRSV CP digestibility in gastro-intestinal fluids as well as bioinformatic analysis have shown that the transgene CP protein expressed in Rainbow and SunUp papaya is not allergenic. The PRSV CP is the major protein expressed in Rainbow papaya along with widely used nptII and GUS plant transformation markers. Here we will discuss about CP protein only as food safety of NPTII and GUS have been addressed elsewhere (24-26). The prediction of allergenicity of novel proteins are based on either bioinformatic and/or experimental approaches (6, 7). Following the bioinformatics analysis, PRSV CP did not show significant similarity to known allergenic proteins based on the criterion of an eight amino acid identical match (27). However, we performed more stringent similarity search criterion of a six amino acid identity match to the query CP sequences which identified only five entries in the SDAP database. Although we identified very small number of matches to known allergens based on a six amino acid similarity search, numerous reports indicate that the high percentage of allergenic proteins identified using this criterion are false positives (31, 32) and thus in practice does not accurately predict allergenic proteins. A computer based allergenicity prediction report by Kleter and Peijnenburg (28) identified a peptide of six amino acids (EKQKEK) shared by PRSV CP and a proposed allergen ABA-1, a protein of the human parasite Ascaris lumbricoides or the pig parasite Ascaris suum. However, as noted previously by Suzuki et al.(29), the PRSV CP match to ABA-1 is not relevant with regards to allergenicity for several reasons: 1) the amino acid sequence is not repeated in the coat protein sequence, therefore it will not trigger the IgE response associated with allergens, 2) the ABA-1 proposed allergenic peptide was found to be not inherently allergenic outside the context of other Ascaris proteins (30), and 3) it is not among the officially recognized allergens found in the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) allergen database ( An important aspect of assessing potential allergenicity is experimental testing for properties common to allergenic proteins such as stability in simulated gastro-intestinal fluids which include SGF and SIF. SGF was developed to represent the conditions in the human stomach (20) and basically consists of the main gastric protease pepsin in low pH medium. Some data suggests that proteins that are susceptible to gastrointestinal digestion are inherently safer than those that are stable especially in terms of allergenicity (5).

Monday, January 13, 2020

Protection from Harm & Abuse Essay

Throughout this work I will relate to a case study. I will provide a definition of abuse using both sociological and psychological perspectives to contribute to our understanding of the causes of abuse. I will define the types, indicators, signs and symptoms of abuse and its impact on families and individuals, identifying factors relevant to the case study, recognising and explaining current legislation making reference to Government reports/inquiries and research into failures to protect from harm and abuse. I will consider the policies and procedures that my work place use and I will identify some statutory and voluntary agencies and their roles in supporting those affected by abuse, relating specifically to the abuse of children. My understanding is abuse is an unpleasant and harmful treatment of an individual, which can effects physical and psychological welfare and may affect future development. Abuse can cause an individual a great deal of distress and fear, as well as physical injury and may affect their emotional development. â€Å"Child maltreatment is the abuse and neglect that occurs to children under 18 years of age. see more:identify reports into serious failures to protect individuals from abuse in health and social care It includes all types of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, negligence and commercial or other exploitation, which results in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power. Exposure to intimate partner violence is also sometimes included as a form of child maltreatment† (WHO) A Psychological & Sociological Perspective into the Causes of Abuse Psychological theory focuses on the instinctive and psychological qualities of those who abuse. Believing it’s the abusers abnormalities that are responsible for abuse, abusive parents may have been abused in childhood. Psychodynamic theory claims abuse and neglect are a bi-product of maternal deprivation. The mother has suffered abuse herself, displays a lack of empathy, sensitivity and responses to her child. Mother and child relationships are the focus with the mothers’ psychological make-up key. Psychodynamic psychologists say we are born with drives which need satisfying and if not satisfied one can be psychologically stuck at a certain stage Erikson’s â€Å"lifespan† theory saw that universally people face conflict throughout stages of life, he said people faced conflicts influenced by social relationships, rather than their own psycho-sexual development. At each stage of life Erikson believed was: a conflict to resolve and a balance to achieve between the two with a possible positive outcome, creating a ‘virtue’ or ‘ego strength’ allowing competency in all other areas of life or if not resolved a negative ‘maladjustment’ causing disadvantage in the succeeding stage. For example at Stage 1 – Infancy, conflict – trust versus mistrust. A baby learns from attentive care to trust, or through neglect, mistrust in the world. Good resolution of this stage leads to the ego strength of hope about the world. The mala djustment can be either mistrust or insecurity. Erikson believes people who’ve had problems in life haven’t resolved conflict beforehand and as each stage is programmed the individual cannot relive a stage however work can be done to resolve some of the issues. â€Å"Hope is both the earliest and the most indispensable virtue inherent in the state of being alive. If life has to be sustained hope must remain, even when confidence is wounded, trust impaired† Erikson, 1950. (Bingham et al. p78) Sociological theory emphasise social and political conditions as most important reason for child abuse, examining social conditions that create the climate for abuse, not individual factors. Feminist theory sees abuse as longstanding male power over women and children, believing men abuse to exert power. Brownmiller 1975, revealed sexual abuse is more than an action committed by one man against one woman; it is a imposing tool of male control over women, an exercise of power with a philosophy to instruct women to fear male violence. â€Å"A sexual invasion of the body by force, an incursion into the private, personal inner space without consent. . . . constitutes a deliberate violation of emotional, physical and rational integrity and is a hostile, degrading act of violence that deserves the name of rape† (Brownmiller, S p377) The five most common social service workers will likely see are: Physical Abuse, Emotional Abuse, Sexual Abuse, Neglect and Financial Abuse. Physical abuse is causing bodily harm it may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning or suffocating or excessive discipline or family violence, use of restraints or imprisonment, denial or misuse of medication, physical aids and adaptations or when the carer feigns ill-health of a child. Some signs and indicators may be physical (several injuries in various stages of healing, repeated injuries or accidents over a period of time, injuries that form a shape like the object used to injure (buckle, hand, iron, teeth, cigarette burns), or death. Behavioural indicators include (negative self-image, deserving punishment, no recall how injuries occurred, offer inconsistent explanations, wary of others and reluctance to go home) Physical abuse can be seen in relation to John Burn (60). He claimed no recollection to a black-eye and urged for his son not to be informed, although it is important not to cast assumptions. Emotional abuse is persistent neglect with severe effects on a child’s emotional development. Can involve conveying worthlessness, detested, inadequate or valued only to meet the needs of another. It may involve the imposition of age- or developmentally-inappropriate expectations on a child or causing children fear or danger, or exploiting or corrupting them. Some level of emotional abuse is persistent in all ill treatment. Both physical (Bed-wetting/soiling without medical cause, prolonged vomiting/diarrhoea, not attained developmental milestones) and behavioural (play models negative behaviour/language, depression, anxiety, withdrawal or aggression) signs may be indicators. John Burn did not want his son to be told anymore of his black-eye as he would be annoyed, Ann reported Peter gets loud and aggressive at night and appeared apprehensive during social work visit as Peter did not want interference. Sexual abuse includes acts or behaviours where a more powerful person uses another for a sexual purpose. It may involve a stranger, however most sexual abuse is by someone known and trusted. It includes touching, fondling, sexual intercourse, exposure of private parts, or seeking to be touch for sexual gratification. Also voyeurism, pornographic photographing or involvement of children, prostitution or using internet/phone for sexual conversations with children. Indicators can be: physical: bruises, swelling or bleeding in genital/vaginal/anal area, torn, stained or bloody underclothing, and STI’s. Behavioural – cringing/flinching if touched; caregiver constantly calling ‘stupid’ or ‘dumb’ and can be displayed by child or abuser. Scottish Government acknowledges â€Å"not every case of sexual activity in under-16s has child protection concerns, but some may need support in relation to their sexual development and relationships† ( uk). Ann (17) has learning difficulties and would have been under 16 during her first pregnancy. Due to her age and vulnerability Child Protection issues should have been raised as Peter is almost double Ann’s age and the Sexual Offences (Scotland) Act 2009 states â€Å"sexual activity between an adult and someone under 16 is a criminal offence† Neglect – failure to meet basic physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of health or development, involving failure to provide food, shelter and clothing, or to protect from physical harm/danger, or failure to obtain medical care/treatment, failure to respond to basic emotional needs. Possible physical indicators may be: Inappropriately dress for weather, dirty, unkempt, lengths of time unsupervised, malnourished, severe nappy rash or persistent skin disorders from lack of care and hygiene. Both children in the case study are neglected they have unsatisfactory medical attendance with George (1) suffering nappy rash, inflamed skin and missed inoculations since birth. Kyle (2) has missed medicals which could’ve addressed his development needs. Financial abuse includes stealing money or property, fraud, pressure in connection with savings, wills, inheritance or personal financial transactions, embezzlement, pensions or benefits. Possible signs and indicators of this abuse: unusual & unexplained activity in bank accounts, embezzlement or unpaid bills. John Burn may have been financially abused, he has no recollection of missing money and is unable to manage without it, and again does not want his son to know. The impact and effects of the above abuse within the case study is apparent as Peter Burns has traded a dependency on heroin for alcohol which sees him sleep all day, neglecting his role within the family and becomes loudly aggressive at night, this would cause fear in the rest of the household. Protection means recognising concerns and understanding how to share concerns, investigate, assess and the steps required to ensure safety and well-being. Legislation places a variety of duties and responsibilities on services and organisations. Neglectful indicators seen in both infants within the study, social work may say that the parents breach ‘Section 5 of The Children (Scotland) Act 1995’ which states â€Å"a parent has in relation to his child the responsibility to safeguard and promote the child’s health, development and welfare†. ( â€Å"State Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child.† (Article 19’ UNCRC) This places responsibility on the social worker and health professionals in case study. Legislation is often formed as a response to public inquiries, highlighting poor practice/abuse that takes place with authority or private providers, government investigations highlight failures and make recommendations to prevent future incidents. Summary of Fatal Accident Inquiry Determination: The Deaths on Erskine Bridge Niamh and Georgia died below Erskine Bridge, 4/10/2009, by suicides. Having walked from the Good Shepherd Open Unit, stopping at the centre of the Bridge, both girls died on impact with the water. The Inquiry lasted 65 days and it ruled deaths avoidable had reasonable precautions been taken: ‘Staff members on duty at the Unit been higher. Had Niamh & Georgia risk assessment needs assessed and accommodated at a different location within the Unit’. Several recommendations were made following relating to: security, supervision, management, lack of information, risk/psychological assessments missing, better communication system and accurate recording /time keeping amongst others. Professor S Platt of Health Policy Research at University of Edinburgh made three recommendations which are reflected in residential policies now. 1. Local authorities to commission guidelines for staff on recognising and mitigating suicide risk in this client group. These guidelines should include the requirement to develop a detailed management protocol. 2. The management protocol should set out the procedures to be implemented when a looked after and accommodation child is considered to be at risk of self-harm or suicide e.g. by making suicide ‘threats’, by expressing suicidal thoughts or by making preparations for suicide. The protocol should cover inter alia the allocation of duties and responsibilities. 3. Professionals working with looked after and accommodated children, either directly or indirectly should have a sound understanding self-harm and suicide among their clients and of appropriate interventions to mitigate that risk. Provision of appropriate training on start of employment and regularly thereafter (as part professional development). ( Results of recommendations mean frequent suicide prevention training is mandatory, new traffic light system of reporting absconders/missing people, created in partnership with Strathclyde Police and Local Authorities reflecting individual risk assessments, allowing staff to identify and prevent risks of self harm or suicide and report efficiently should they suspect an absconder is at risk. My workplace lengthy child protection policy, provides guidelines for all eventualities. In the case of a disclosure the child/young person would be informed that information would be passed on if it related to their wellbeing being harmed, allowing them to speak without interruption, listen to-do not coheres, don’t make judgement, positive praise for sharing with you and inform them that you will do all in your power to support them. It must then be reported to the child protection officer who would deal with the formal reporting if it were deemed necessary. I could be asked to help assess the child or provide statements to police. In the case of the abuser staff working in safeguarding children has a responsibility to ensure children are adequately protected and a responsibility to share information about individuals where a risk of child abuse is suspected with Social Care Service Managers. Legislation, National Care Standards and SSSC Codes of Practice contribute to the protection of children and vulnerable adults. In NCS’s for school care accommodation services standard 3.3 looks at care and protection states that workers are aware of child protection policies and procedures. Standard 3.7 ensures protection issues are dealt with using policies and procedures. The SSSC codes of practice contribute to protection code 3.2 states we must carry out the correct processes and procedures to challenge and report dangerous, abusive, discriminatory or exploitive behaviour and practice. code 3.7 states we must support service users/carers to make complaints, taking complaints seriously, responding to or passing to appropriate person. Code 2.7 states to respect confidential information. For child protection, no Schedule One offence is ever ‘spent’ in terms of Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974. The Sexual Offences Act 2003 has sections relevant to care workers and committed against service users such as; Section 39 Care workers: causing or inciting sexual activity, Section 40 Care workers: sexual activity in the presence of a person with a mental disorder & Section 41 Care workers: causing a person with a mental disorder to watch a sexual act. The support, therapy and treatment of those affected by abuse is an important factor in ensuring wellbeing and safety. Statutory, voluntary and private/independent organisations provide diverse services some of which may overlap. Set up through government remit such as SurvivorScotland, social service and education departments, CAMHS are part of the NHS who support young people and their families with emotional, behavioral and mental health difficulties. A single shared assessment from a multi-agency partner ship of professionals not only protect but prevent with early intervention. Many voluntary agencies/charities focus on helping children such as, Barnardos, Womens Aid and the NSPCC (National Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Children) who work at national, regional and local level, some of their services include Childline as well as advise lines like the CTAC (Child Trafficking Advice Centre). Private services are profit driven, including home care providers and respite services. Instances of disclosure in various aspects which must be always dealt with professionally no matter how distressing. Workers/carers are offered support in the form of counselling through BACP (The British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy) or services such as mind, Re-think or Samaritans who’ll listen to, provide support, advice, signposts or referrals to other agencies. There will be instances where workers will support the ‘abused’ however may find themselves supporting an ‘abuser’ or ‘someone at risk of abusing’. Police, Prison Services, Local Authorities, and Social Services work closely to minimise risk and supervise offenders in the community. It is crucial not to allow personal feelings/values to conflict with professionalism. The Human Rights Act, Article 8: Right to privacy, highlights the importance of confidentiality in this line of work, however this right can be limited if it is necessary to protect public safety which Police and Social Work would determine through on-going reviews of risk level each offender poses, reducing the likelihood of further offending by providing sex offender group-work through social work services. Not all sex offenders are alike, some people have deep regrets and go on to be law-abiding whereas others have deep-rooted psychological problems requiring intensive support to manage behaviour. Workers should bear in mind that a significant proportion of sexual crimes go unreported and there are a number of sex-offenders not known to the authorities and need t o take sensible safety precautions if you should suspect such individuals. Workers will have supervision with managers where issues are highlighted or access to counselling. Bibliography BINGHAM, E. et al. (2009) HNC in Social Care. For Scotland. Essex: Heinemann. BROWNMILLER, S. (1975) Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape. New York: Simon and Schuster. CHILD MATTERS (2014) Learn about Child Abuse [Online]. Available from: [Accessed: 20th March 2014] COMPANY POLICIES & PROCEDURES. ANON (Data Protection Act 1998) SC03-Child Protection MIND (2014) How to Cope as a Carer [Online]. Available from: [Accessed: 3rd May 2014] SCOTTISH PARLIMENT. SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT MINISTERS. (2012) National Care Standards. [Online]. Available from: [Accessed: 7th March 2014]. SCOTTISH PARLIMENT. SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT MINISTERS (2010) National Guidance for Child Protection in Scotland & The Children (Scotland) Act 1995 & National Guidance – Under-age Sexual Activity [Online]. Available from: [Accessed: 7th March & 19th May 2014] SCOTLAND JUDICIARY Fatal Accident Inquiry into the Deaths on Erskine Bridge (2010) [Online]. Available from: [Accessed 9th May 2014] THE OXFORD DICTIONARY (2014) Abuse [Online] Available from: [Accessed 17th March 2014] LIBERTY (2014) Human Rights Act Myths [Online] Available from:

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The Security Of Cybersecurity And Digital Spying - 1173 Words

Cybersecurity is the body of technologies, processes and practices designed to protect networks, computers, programs and data from attack, damage or unauthorized access (Rouse, 2010). Governments, military, corporations, hospitals, financial institutions, have their personal/ confidential information collected, processed, stored and data transmitted across networks to unauthorized computers. Due to the growing and sophistication of cyberattacks, real time shields are required to protect personal information. A Senate hearing in March 2013, the nation s top intelligence officials warned that cyberattacks and digital spying are the top threat to national security, eclipsing terrorism. Ensuring cybersecurity requires coordinated efforts throughout an information system (Rouse, 2010). Cybersecurity include: ïÆ'Ëœ Information security ïÆ'Ëœ Disaster recovery ïÆ'Ëœ Network security ïÆ'Ëœ Application security One of the biggest issues regarding cybersecurity, is how technology is rapidly and constantly evolving. The traditional approach has been to focus most resources on the most crucial system components and protect against the biggest known threats, which necessitated leaving some less important system components undefended and some less dangerous risks not protected against (Rouse, 2010). Adam Vincent, CTO-public sector at Layer 7 Technologies (a security services provider to federal agencies including Defense Department organizations), describes the problem (Rouse, 2010): The threat isShow MoreRelatedEssay On Cybersecurity Breaches1033 Words   |  5 Pagesresults in more vulnerability to cyber-attacks including cybersecurity breaches. Today, the world continues to experience inordinate cases of cybersecurity meltdowns. 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Therefore, information and cyber security must be implemented correctly in order to satisfy the elements of confidentiality, integrity and availability. INTRODUCTION: In the current global world the power to connect with people by using Telecommunications and Technology has immensely grownRead MoreCyber Security3559 Words   |  15 PagesCYBER SECURITY INTRODUCTION It is also known as â€Å"Computer Security or IT security†. It is applied to the security of computer, computer network and the data stored and transmitted over them. Today the computer system are used in wide variety of â€Å"smart devices, including Smartphone’s,   televisions  and tiny devices as part of the  Internet of Things, and networks include not only the  Internet  and private data networks, but also  Bluetooth,  Wi-Fi  and other  networks. Computer security covers all the

Saturday, December 28, 2019

Tbsc Compensator For Online Starting Of Induction Motors Business Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2712 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Cause and effect essay Did you like this example? Abstract This paper presents a topology for direct online starting of Induction Motors (I.M.s) using Thyristor Binary Switched Capacitor (TBSC) compensator operating in closed loop. TBSC is based on a chain of Thyristor Switched Capacitor (TSC) banks arranged in binary sequential manner. A transient free switching of TBSCs is carried out. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Tbsc Compensator For Online Starting Of Induction Motors Business Essay" essay for you Create order Proposed topology allows switching in/out of capacitor banks according to the reactive power requirement of induction motors in very fast responding closed loop. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve reactive power compensation in cycle to cycle basis. Proposed scheme can be used for direct online starting of I.M.s with voltage sag mitigation at starting, which helps improving stability of the system and Power Factor (P.F.) improvement in steady state. Keywords Reactive power compensation, TBSC, transient free switching, voltage sag, Power Factor Introduction Induction motors (I.M.) constitute a large portion of power system. Three-phase induction motors represent the most significant load in the industrial plants, over the half of the delivered electrical energy [1]. Starting of induction motor may cause a problem of voltage sag in the power system. The IEEE defines voltage sag as: A decrease to between 0.1 and 0.9 p.u. in rms voltage or current at the power frequency for durations of 0.5 cycle to 1 min [2]. An induction motor at rest can be modeled as a transformer with the secondary winding short circuited. Thus when full voltage is applied, a heavy inrush current (of 6 to 10 times the rated value) is drawn from the power system that causes voltage sag. As the motor accelerates and attains the rated speed, the inrush current decays and the system voltage recovers [3]. Voltage sag can cause mal-operation of voltage sensitive devices such as computers, relays, programmable logic controllers etc. [chetan]. Also because of the highly ind uctive nature of the motor circuit at rest, the power factor is very low, usually of the order of 10 to 20 percent [3]. Thus reactive power demand at the starting of I.M. is very high and it reduces as motor picks up the speed. There are several solutions to minimize this problem, the most common are [5]: reactor start, auto transformer start, delta-wye start, capacitor start, soft starter, frequency variable driver (FVD) etc. All these methods except capacitor start are based on a motor terminal voltage reduction to decrease the rotor current, reducing the line voltage drop [5]. Problem with this method of starting is that the motor torque is directly proportional to the square of the supply voltage hence decrease in the motor terminal voltage will cause the motor torque to decrease, which may be insufficient for driving the required load [6]. Soft starter and frequency variable driver methods are the most expensive and complex, requiring more expert maintenance [7]. In capacitor s tart system, reactive current required by the motor during acceleration is supplied by capacitors which reduce the source current. This in turn reduces the magnitude of voltage sag in the system. Capacitor start method has a lower cost in comparison with other methods however one has to consider the transitory effects of switching of capacitor banks [3]. An alternative solution without motor terminal voltage reduction was proposed using Static VAR Compensator (SVC) in [8]. In [9] different topology of SVC without using thyristor controlled reactor (TCR) was proposed which has advantage of reduction in both cost as well as harmonics produced by TCR. This paper presents a simple topology, which is shown in Fig.1. TBSC Compensator Induction Motor n Induction Motor 2 Vs Induction Motor 1E:M.Tech DissertationSmart DrawNewI.MIMMain-Diagram.tif Fig. 1 Proposed topology. C.T. Current Transformer P.T. Potential Transformer TBSC Thyristor Binary Switched Capacitor C Capacitor Value Distribution Transformer Point Of Common Coupling (PCC) C.T. P.T. 27 C 22 C 21 C 20 C I CONTROLLER 8 TBSC Banks V Induction MotorsE:M.Tech DissertationSmart DrawNewController_I.M.tif Fig.2 TBSC compensator for direct online starting of induction motor. The proposed scheme consists of Thyristor Switched Capacitor (TSC) banks in binary sequential steps [9] known as Thyristor Binary Switched Capacitor (TBSC) which are used for direct online starting of induction motor. The proposed topology has following distinctive features: 1) Transient free switching of capacitors is carried out. 2) Reactive power compensation is achieved in cycle by cycle basis. 3) Low cost 4) Closed loop operation is achieved using controller 5) Can be used to start more than one induction motor. 6) Can be implemented at the Point of common coupling (PCC) without disturbing the existing starting techniques. The theme of this paper deals with the proposed topology, description of controller and presentation of simulation results. Proposed Topology Description TBSC compensator connected at the point of common coupling (PCC) for direct online starting of induction motors is shown in Fig.2. The operating principle of TBSC and controller is outlined in the following sections. TBSC TBSC consists of an anti-parallel connected thyristor and diode as a bidirectional switch in series with a capacitor and a current limiting small reactor. Transient free switching of capacitors is obtained by satisfying following two conditions [10]: Firing the thyristors at the negative/positive peak of supply voltage Precharging the Capacitors to the negative/positive peak of supply voltage TSC current is sinusoidal and free from harmonics, thus eliminating the need for any filters. Small-series inductor is placed in series with capacitor. It serves following purposes [11]: It limits current transients if capacitors are switched at inappropriate instants. The chosen inductor magnitude gives a natural resonant frequency of many times the system nominal frequency. This ensures that the inductance neither creates a harmonic resonant circuit with the network nor affects the TSC control system. In the proposed scheme capacitor bank step values are chosen in bin ary sequence weights to make the resolution small. If such n capacitor steps are used then 2n different compensation levels can be provided [12]. In this paper eight TBSC banks are arranged as 2.5: 5: 10: 20: 40: 80: 160: 320 KVAR in star connected with neutral grounded configuration. CONTROLLER Controller is the heart of compensator. Voltage V and current I at PCC are sensed by Potential Transformer (P.T.) and Current Transformer (C.T.) respectively and given to controller. Controller determines the value of reactive power required to achieve the desired power factor and then generates the control signals (gate signals) which are given to TBSC banks. Controller Description Reactive Power demand of I.M.s QMotor Transient Free Switching QTBSC QActual PI Controller _ Q Sensing + QRef _ + TBSC Banks ADCC:UsersIrfanAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsTemporary Internet FilesContent.WordClosed Loop_TSC2.tif Fig. 3 TBSC closed loop operation. A block diagram of TBSC compensator operating in closed loop is shown in Fig. 3. Reference reactive power, QRef is calculated from the desired power factor (If unity power factor is required then Qref will be set to zero). Actual reactive power at PCC, QActual depends on the number of motors switched in the system. QActual is calculated by sensing voltage and current at PCC by P.T. and C.T. respectively. Error signal between QRef and QActual is given to PI controller. Discrete PI controller is used. Output of PI controller is given to ADC and its output is given to TBSC banks in such a way that no transients occur. Switching in/out of capacitor banks is decided by the controller. At the time of starting of I.M.s reactive power demand is large hence higher capacitor banks will be switched in while as motor reaches the rated spe ed only few lower capacitor banks will remain connected at the PCC. In this way closed loop operation of TBSC banks for direct online starting of I.M.s is achieved. Simulation Results MATLAB/SIMULINK software is used for simulation. Data used in the simulation is shown below. Source Voltage V = 400 V, Rs = 0.0287ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¾Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¦, Ls = 0.20471mH Induction motor (I.M.) 3 identical I.M.s are used in the simulation which are switched on at t = 0 sec, 0.8 sec and 1.6 sec respectively. For Simulation purpose at 1.6 sec, two 50 h.p. motors are switched on simultaneously to get 100 h.p. load. Parameters of each I.M. are shown in Table I. TABLE I. Parameters Of Induction Motor Sr. No. Parameter Values 1. Voltage (line-line) 400 V 2. Frequency 50 Hz 3. Nominal power 50 h.p. 4. Speed 1480 r.p.m. TABLE II. Values Of Eight Tbsc Banks Sr. No. Q (in KVAR) C (in  µF) L (in mH) 1. 2.5 50 0.10775 2. 5 100 0.0538 3. 10 200 0.0269 4. 20 400 0.0134 5. 40 800 0.0067 6. 80 1600 0.0033 7. 160 3200 0.0016 8. 320 6400 0.00084 TBSC banks Eight TBSC banks are used in the simulation whose values are shown in Table II. Direct online induction motor starting without TBSC compensator Fig. 4 shows the waveform of motor line voltage. When I.M.1 is switched on at t=0sec, the motor line voltage drops to 351V i.e. voltage sag of 11.14% takes place. Line voltage returns to steady value of 395V in 0.5sec. When I.M.2 is switched on at t=0.8sec, the motor line voltage drops to 349V i.e. voltage sag of 11.64% takes place. Line voltage returns to steady value of 392V in 0.5sec. When I.M.3 is switched on at t=1.6sec, the motor line voltage drops to 309V i.e. voltage sag of 21.77% takes place. Line voltage returns to steady value of 382V in 0.7sec. E:M.Tech DissertationMATLABM-FilesMatlab figureI.MI.M. NewVs_WithoutTBSC.tif Fig. 4 Motor line voltage without TBSC compensator. E:M.Tech DissertationMATLABM-FilesMatlab figureI.MI.M. NewQ_Without.tif Fig.5 Reactive power variation of I.M. without TBSC compensator. C:UsersIrfanAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsTemporary Internet FilesContent.WordI_Without.tif Fig.6 Motor line current without TBSC compensator. C:Use rsIrfanAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsTemporary Internet FilesContent.WordN_Without1.tif Fig.7 Speed of motors without TBSC compensator. Fig. 5 shows the variation of reactive power with time. When I.M.1 and 2 is switched on at t= 0sec and 0.8sec respectively, reactive power demand is around 250 KVAR at starting period. Reactive power demand is around 380 KVAR when I.M.3 is switched on at t=1.6 sec. It is seen that reactive power demand is very high at the time of starting of motor and it reduces as the motor reaches the steady state condition. Because of high reactive power requirement at start voltage drops as shown in Fig. 4. Fig. 6 shows the variation of motor current with time. When I.M.1 and 2 is switched on at t= 0sec and 0.8 sec respectively, current is around 500 A at starting period while at the time of starting of I.M. 3 it is around 1000 A. It is seen that when motor is switched on, current is very large at the starting period and it reduces as motor attains steady speed. Fig. 7 shows the variation of motor speed with time. When I.M.1 is switched on at t= 0sec it achieves rated speed in 0.6 sec. I.M.2 is switched on at t=0.8 sec and it achieves rated speed in 0.6 sec. At the time of switching of I.M.2 speed of I.M.1 drops to 1460 rpm for very short duration of about one cycle. I.M.3 is switched on at t=1.6 sec and it achieves rated speed in 0.8 sec. At the time of switching of I.M.3 speed of I.M.1 and I.M.2 drops to 1442 rpm for very short duration of about one cycle. Direct online induction motor starting with TBSC compensator Discrete PI controller with KP = 0.54 and KI = 25 and 8 bit ADC is used in simulation. Waveforms of I.M. reactive power demand QMotor and reactive power given by TBSC QTBSC are shown in Fig. 8. From simulation results it is seen that QTBSC closely follows QMotor and actual reactive power QActual at PCC is approximately zero at all times. Thus power factor is maintained near unity at all time. The small error is due to the binary switching arrangement of TSCs. Fig. 9 shows the motor line voltage with TBSC compensator. When I.M.1 is switched on at t=0sec, motor line voltage drops to 389V i.e. small voltage sag of 2.01% takes place for a duration of 0.4sec. Line voltage returns to steady value of 400V in 0.4sec. When I.M.2 is switched on at t=0.8sec, the motor line voltage drops to 377V i.e. voltage sag of 5.3% takes place for a duration of 0.4 sec. Line voltage returns to E:M.Tech DissertationMATLABM-FilesMatlab figureI.MI.M. NewQ_New_IM.tif Fig.8 Waveforms of QMotor and QTB SC. E:M.Tech DissertationMATLABM-FilesMatlab figureI.MI.M. NewVs_WithTBSC.tif Fig. 9 Motor line voltage with TBSC compensator. steady value of 396V in 0.4sec. When I.M.3 is switched on at t=1.6sec, the motor line voltage drops to 360V i.e. voltage sag of 7.92% takes place for a duration of 0.65 sec. Line voltage returns to steady value of 391V in 0.7sec. These results show that with TBSC compensator there is considerable reduction in voltage sag and there is improvement in the voltage profile. Fig. 10 shows the comparison of motor line voltage with and without TBSC compensator. Current waveforms through all TSC banks and total compensating current (of R phase) are shown in Fig. 11 which are free from harmonics and have negligibly small transients only at few switching instants. E:M.Tech DissertationMATLABM-FilesMatlab figureI.MI.M. NewVs_WithoutTBSC.tif E:M.Tech DissertationMATLABM-FilesMatlab figureI.MI.M. NewVs_WithTBSC.tif Fig. 10 Motor line voltage wit hout TBSC compensator (Top) and with TBSC compensator (Bottom). C:UsersIrfanAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsTemporary Internet FilesContent.WordI_All_TSC1.tif C:UsersIrfanAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsTemporary Internet FilesContent.WordI_All_TSC2.tif Fig. 11 Current waveforms through all TSC banks and total compensating current (of R phase only). E:M.Tech DissertationMATLABM-FilesMatlab figureI.MI.M. NewIs_Ic_Im.tif Fig. 12 Simulation results showing waveforms of motor current, total compensating current and source current in A (of R phase only). C:UsersIrfanAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsTemporary Internet FilesContent.WordN.TIF Fig.13 Simulation results showing speed of Motors with TBSC compensator. Fig. 12 shows the waveforms of motor current, total compensating current and source current. From these results it is clear that the total compensating current i.e. current flowing through all TBSC banks is almost equal to the motor current. Source current at the instan t of switching of I.M.1 and I.M.2 (i.e. at t=0 sec and t= 0.8 sec) is around 300 A. While at the instant of switching of I.M.3 is around 700 A. These results show that with TBSC compensator there is considerable reduction in source current magnitude. This leads to reduction in voltage sag as shown in Fig. 10. Fig. 13 shows the variation of motor speed with time. When I.M.1 is switched on at t=0sec it achieves rated speed in 0.5 sec. I.M.2 is switched on at t=0.8 sec and it achieves rated speed in 0.5 sec. At the time of switching of I.M.2 speed of I.M.1 drops to 1460 rpm for v ery short duration of about one cycle. I.M.3 is switched on at t=1.6 sec and it achieves rated speed in 0.6 sec. At the time of switching of I.M.3 speed of I.M.1 and I.M.2 drops to 1442 rpm for very short duration of about one cycle. Comparisons of results with and without TBSC Compensator are shown in Table III. TABLE III. Comparison Of Results With and Without TBSC Compensator Sr. No. Parameter Without TBSC Compensator With TBSC Compensator I.M.1 (50 h.p.) I.M.2 (50 h.p.) I.M.3 (100 h.p.) I.M.1 (50 h.p.) I.M.2 (50 h.p.) I.M.3 (100 h.p.) 1 Switching instant (in sec) 0.0 0.8 1.6 0.0 0.8 1.6 2 % Voltage sag 11.14 11.64 21.77 2.01 5.3 7.92 3 Reactive power at starting (in KVAR) 250 250 380 Closely matches with the required value 4 Starting current (in A) 500 500 1000 300 300 700 Conclusion A topology for direct online starting of induction motors using TBSC compensator was presented. TSC bank step values were chosen in binary sequence weights to make the resolution small in order to achieve almost stepless reactive power compensation. Harmonic contents in source current were negligibly small. With the use of TBSC compensator; voltage sag magnitude gets reduced as well as voltage profile was improved. Controller operates in a closed loop to determine the number of capacitor units to be switched in the system. At the time of starting of I.M.s higher capacitor banks were switched in the system while once the motor reaches the rated speed only few lower capacitor banks will remain connected at the PCC. Thus at all times power factor was maintained near unity. The proposed scheme is effective during both steady state and transient conditions. Separate starting method for individual induction motors can be avoided and many motors can be started direct online using the prop osed scheme as long as TBSC banks are capable of supplying the required reactive power demand.

Friday, December 20, 2019

Comparing Different Worldviews And Their Effect On Society

Before comparing and contrasting different worldviews and their effect on society, it is important for us to understand what we are studying. What is a worldview? A worldview can be defined by many different definitions. But broadly, it is a way through which you see and interpret the world and the things around you. It is a mental mode of reality from which we develop ideas and theories about the world. It answers questions: What are humans? Why are we here? What is our purpose? What are your values? What can we know with certainty? Does reality include only matter and energy? Does God exist? (Rusbalt) A world view could be likened to a pair of glasses. –Everything you see will be affected by the pair of glasses you are wearing. If you try on another person’s glasses things might appear blurry, and it could very possibly give you a headache. 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